What Is Earthing And Types Of Earthing?

Earthing generally refers to electrical discharge. A low-resistance cable is used to transmit electrical energy to the earth or ground. Earthing is very advantageous not only for the safety reasons of the people nearby but also for the protection of the electrical appliances. It is thus an important step in the welfare of the people associated with the working of an electrical appliance. There are a wide number of reasons why it should be done and how it should be performed. There are also many different types of earthing.

Read on to know about them in detail.


Why do we need earthing?

There are many reasons why we need to perform earthing. Here’s a list of reasons that denote that:

  • We need earthing to prevent electrocution.
  • Earthing is done to prevent circuit breaking.
  • It protects electrical appliances and improves their shelf life.
  • It secures the people who are in contact with the electrical devices.
  • It keeps the voltage of a building under check.
  • It imparts an alternative pathway for the transmission of electrical energy, in case of a leakage.
  • It helps avoid the outbreak of fire in a building.
  • It ensures the safety of very high-voltage zones.


What are the different types of earthing?

There are various categories of earthing. The most popular forms are rod earthing, plate earthing, wire earthing, pipe earthing, electrical earthing or waterman earthing.


Rod earthing: Rod earthing is one of the most traditional forms of earthing, done mostly in sandy areas or in places where there is a lot of moisture. Alloys and metals like iron or copper are used to make a special rod that is used to generate faulty electricity. The rod reduces the earth’s resistance. It is a cost-effective way of directing electricity to the earth. 


Plate earthing: Copper electrodes or galvanized iron plates are needed for this primarily. Either of these is vertically placed at least 3 meters from inside the ground. It is a sound grounding mechanism that ensures compact earthing. The ground is then filled with charcoal and salt. Electric wires are attached to the plates to direct the transmission of energy into the ground.


Wire earthing: The other name for the procedure is strip earthing. Here horizontal trenches are grooved into the ground. Galvanized strip electrodes are inserted there. These provide great electrical resistance to the earth. This type of earthing is conducive for rocky areas.


Pipe earthing: A galvanized electrode of iron, copper or steel is used that acts as a conductor. This is vertically dug into the ground. The dimensions of the pipe are very important to help divert the faulty current. 


Waterman earthing: In this, a specialized GI pipe is buried deep into the ground. The alternate name for Waterman earthing is electrical earthing. In many cases, a deep conducting wire is also used.


Earthing is an essential part of electrical repair and maintenance work. Competent organizations like S&IB always ensure the correct earthing technique is used during electro-mechanical procedures.